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thymosin-beta-4

THYMOSIN BETA 4 / TB500

Thymosin is a hormone secreted from the thymus. Its primary function is to stimulate the production of T cells, which are an important part of the immune system. Thymosin also assists in the development of B cells to plasma cells to produce antibodies. The predominant form of thymosin, thymosin beta-4, is an actin, a cell building protein.

One of the main mechanisms of action of Thymosin Beta-4 is its regulation of Actin. This cell-building protein is an essential component of cell structure and movement which leads to its role in tissue repair. Tβ 4 has been found to play an important role in protection, regeneration, and remodeling of injured or damaged tissues. After an injury, Tβ 4 is released by platelets and numerous other types of cells to protect the most damaged cells and tissues and to reduce inflammation and microbial growth.

Benefits of Thymosin Beta-4

Thymosin beta-4 has a range of benefits throughout the body. Some key features to note include:

  • Calms muscle spasm
  • Improved muscle tone
  • Increased exchange of substances between cells
  • Encourages tissue repair
  • Stretches connective tissue
  • Helps maintain flexibility
  • Reduced inflammation of tissue in joints
  • Encourages the growth of new blood cells in tissue
  • Increased endurance and strength
  • Prevents the formation of adhesions and fibrous bands in muscles, tendons, and ligaments
  • Reduces the infarct size and improves heart contractile performance
  • Therapeutic effect on corneal injury and dry eye syndrome
  • Antifibrotic effect on the liver
  • Accelerates hair growth

How Thymosin Beta-4 Works

Recent studies have revealed that the first gene to be upregulated after an injury is a Tβ4 gene. As the body begins the recovery process, Tβ4 aids in the creation of new vessels in the injured area, which carry blood, nutrients, and reparative substances to the site. Tβ4 also has anti-inflammatory properties and works to decrease the amount of inflammatory substances, called cytokines. Inflammation plays a large role in many of the symptoms associated with a number of other conditions (i.e., Lyme disease, CFS, FM, autoimmune diseases, infections, etc.), making the potential impact of Tβ4 quite extensive.

The discovery of the role of Tβ4 in the process of immune regulation has lead to its use as a valuable therapeutic agent. Tβ4 has been used in the treatment of HIV, AIDS, Influenza, colds, and various infections. It has been utilized in the management of various inflammatory conditions, as well as part of treatment following a heart attack due to its cardio and neuroprotective effects.

TB500

TB-500 is a synthetic fraction of the 43 amino acid protein thymosin beta-4. The main purpose of this peptide is to promote healing. The healing effects of TB-500 have been observed in tendons, ligaments, muscles, skin, heart, and eyes. It aids in the quick healing of wounds by promoting new blood vessel and muscle fiber growth. It upregulates cell building proteins like actin. It is fast acting and goes to the site of the injury once injected and starts to work. Benefits include:

  • Increases cells in healing
  • Promotes angiogenesis (blood vessel formation)
  • Decreases inflammation
  • Improves cell migration to the cite of the injury
  • Soft tissue repair - tendon, ligament, muscle sports, and athletic injuries
  • Reduces scar tissue and adhesions, helps maintain flexibility
  • Significant repair and regenerative properties
  • Enlarged muscle growth, muscle tone, and muscular stamina

Side Effects

Tβ4 is very well tolerated and has not been found to cause any significant side effects. It can be taken on its own or in conjunction with an existing therapy, making it a versatile and valuable peptide.

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Research

Maar K, Hetenyi R, Maar S, Faskerti G, Hanna D, Lippai B, Takatsy A, Bock-Marquette I. Utilizing Developmentally Essential Secreted Peptides Such as Thymosin Beta-4 to Remind the Adult Organs of Their Embryonic State-New Directions in Anti-Aging Regenerative Therapies. Cells. 2021 May 28;10(6):1343. doi: 10.3390/cells10061343. PMID: 34071596; PMCID: PMC8228050.
 
Xing Yuan, Ye Yumeng, Zuo Hongyan, Li Yang. Progress on the Function and Application of Thymosin β4. Frontiers in Endocrinology.  VOLUME 12  2021   https://www.frontiersin.org/article/10.3389/fendo.2021.767785
 

Renga G, Oikonomou V, Stincardini C, Pariano M, Borghi M, Costantini C, Bartoli A, Garaci E, Goldstein AL, Romani L. Thymosin β4 limits inflammation through autophagy. Expert Opin Biol Ther. 2018 Jul;18(sup1):171-175. doi: 10.1080/14712598.2018.1473854. PMID: 30063848.

Kleinman HK, Sosne G (2016). Thymosin β4 Promotes Dermal Healing. review. Vitamins and Hormones. 102. pp. 251–75.

Goldstein AL, Hannappel E, Sosne G, Kleinman HK. Thymosin β4: a multi-functional regenerative peptide. Basic properties and clinical applications. Expert Opin Biol Ther. 2012 Jan;12(1):37-51. doi: 10.1517/14712598.2012.634793. Epub 2011 Nov 10. PMID: 22074294.

Young JD, Lawrence AJ, MacLean AG, Leung BP, McInnes IB, Canas B, Pappin DJ, Stevenson RD (December 1999). Thymosin beta 4 sulfoxide is an anti-inflammatory agent generated by monocytes in the presence of glucocorticoids. Nature Medicine. 5 (12): 1424–7.

Goldstein AL, Kleinman HK. Advances in the basic and clinical applications of thymosin β4. Expert Opin Biol Ther. 2015;15 Suppl 1:S139-45. doi: 10.1517/14712598.2015.1011617. Epub 2015 Jun 22. PMID: 26096726.

D. Philp, S. St-Surin, H.-J. Cha, H.-S. Moon, H. K. Kleinman, and M. Elkin, Thymosin beta 4 induces hair growth via stem cell migration and differentiation. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, vol. 1112, pp. 95–103, 2007.

H. Kaur and B. Mutus, Platelet function and thymosin beta4. The Journal of Biological Chemistry, vol. 393, no. 7, pp. 595–598, 2012.

T. Hara, Thymosins and Muscle Regeneration. Vitamins & Hormones, vol. 87, pp. 277–290, 2011.

Y. Tokura, Y. Nakayama, S.-I. Fukada et al., Muscle injury-induced thymosin β4 acts as a chemoattractant for myoblasts. The Journal of Biochemistry, vol. 149, no. 1, pp. 43–48, 2011.

Pipes GT, Yang J. Cardioprotection by Thymosin Beta 4. Vitamins and Hormones. 2016;102:209-226. DOI: 10.1016/bs.vh.2016.04.004.

Song K, Han HJ, Kim S, Kwon J. Thymosin beta 4 attenuates PrP(106-126)-induced human brain endothelial cells dysfunction. Eur J Pharmacol. 2020 Feb 15;869:172891. doi: 10.1016/j.ejphar.2019.172891. Epub 2019 Dec 23.

Bjørklund G, Dadar M, Aaseth J, Chirumbolo S. Thymosin β4: a multi-faceted tissue repair stimulating protein in heart injury. Curr Med Chem. 2019 Jul 16. doi: 10.2174/0929867326666190716125456.

Hinkel R, Klett K, Bähr A, Kupatt C. Thymosin β4-mediated protective effects in the heart. Expert Opin Biol Ther. 2018 Jul;18(sup1):121-129. doi:10.1080/14712598.2018.1490409.

Silva WA Jr, Covas DT, Panepucci RA, Proto-Siqueira R, Siufi JL, Zanette DL, Santos AR, Zago MA. The profile of gene expression of human marrow mesenchymal stem cells. Stem Cells. 2003;21(6):661-9.