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WHAT IS THYMOSIN BETA 4?

Thymosin is a hormone secreted from the thymus. Its primary function is to stimulate the production of T cells, which are an important part of the immune system. Thymosin also assists in the development of B cells to plasma cells to produce antibodies. The predominant form of thymosin, thymosin beta 4, is an actin, a cell building protein. One of the main mechanisms of action of Thymosin Beta-4 is its regulation of Actin. This cell-building protein is an essential component of cell structure and movement which leads to its role in tissue repair. Tβ 4 has been found to play an important role in protection, regeneration, and remodeling of injured or damaged tissues. After an injury, Tβ 4 is released by platelets and numerous other types of cells to protect the most damaged cells and tissues and to reduce inflammation and microbial growth.

Benefits of Thymosin beta 4:

  • Calms muscle spasm
  • Improved muscle tone
  • Increased exchange of substances between cells
  • Encourages tissue repair
  • Stretches connective tissue
  • Helps maintain flexibility
  • Reduced inflammation of tissue in joints
  • Encourages the growth of new blood cells in tissue
  • Increased endurance and strength
  • Prevents the formation of adhesions and fibrous bands in muscles, tendons, and ligaments

Recent studies have revealed that the first gene to be upregulated after an injury is a Tβ4 gene. As the body begins the recovery process, Tβ4 aids in the creation of new vessels in the injured area, which carry blood, nutrients, and reparative substances to the site. Tβ4 also has anti-inflammatory properties and works to decrease the amount of inflammatory substances, called cytokines. Inflammation plays a large role in many of the symptoms associated with a number of other conditions (i.e., Lyme disease, CFS, FM, autoimmune diseases, infections, etc.), making the potential impact of Tβ4 quite extensive.

The discovery of the role of Tβ4 in the process of immune regulation has lead to its use as a valuable therapeutic agent. Tβ4 has been used in the treatment of HIV, AIDS, Influenza, colds, and various infections. It has been utilized in the management of various inflammatory conditions, as well as part of treatment following a heart attack due to its cardio and neuroprotective effects.

Tβ4 is very well tolerated and has not been found to cause any significant side effects. It can be taken on its own or in conjunction with an existing therapy, making it a versatile and valuable peptide.

Other Immune Support Peptides

Research

Kleinman HK, Sosne G (2016). Thymosin β4 Promotes Dermal Healing. review. Vitamins and Hormones. 102. pp. 251–75.

Young JD, Lawrence AJ, MacLean AG, Leung BP, McInnes IB, Canas B, Pappin DJ, Stevenson RD (December 1999). Thymosin beta 4 sulfoxide is an anti-inflammatory agent generated by monocytes in the presence of glucocorticoids. Nature Medicine. 5 (12): 1424–7.

D. Philp, S. St-Surin, H.-J. Cha, H.-S. Moon, H. K. Kleinman, and M. Elkin, Thymosin beta 4 induces hair growth via stem cell migration and differentiation. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, vol. 1112, pp. 95–103, 2007.

H. Kaur and B. Mutus, Platelet function and thymosin beta4. The Journal of Biological Chemistry, vol. 393, no. 7, pp. 595–598, 2012.

T. Hara, Thymosins and Muscle Regeneration. Vitamins & Hormones, vol. 87, pp. 277–290, 2011.

Y. Tokura, Y. Nakayama, S.-I. Fukada et al., Muscle injury-induced thymosin β4 acts as a chemoattractant for myoblasts. The Journal of Biochemistry, vol. 149, no. 1, pp. 43–48, 2011.

Pipes GT, Yang J. Cardioprotection by Thymosin Beta 4. Vitamins and Hormones. 2016;102:209-226. DOI: 10.1016/bs.vh.2016.04.004.

Song K, Han HJ, Kim S, Kwon J. Thymosin beta 4 attenuates PrP(106-126)-induced human brain endothelial cells dysfunction. Eur J Pharmacol. 2020 Feb 15;869:172891. doi: 10.1016/j.ejphar.2019.172891. Epub 2019 Dec 23.

Bjørklund G, Dadar M, Aaseth J, Chirumbolo S. Thymosin β4: a multi-faceted tissue repair stimulating protein in heart injury. Curr Med Chem. 2019 Jul 16. doi: 10.2174/0929867326666190716125456.

Hinkel R, Klett K, Bähr A, Kupatt C. Thymosin β4-mediated protective effects in the heart. Expert Opin Biol Ther. 2018 Jul;18(sup1):121-129. doi:10.1080/14712598.2018.1490409.

Silva WA Jr, Covas DT, Panepucci RA, Proto-Siqueira R, Siufi JL, Zanette DL, Santos AR, Zago MA. The profile of gene expression of human marrow mesenchymal stem cells. Stem Cells. 2003;21(6):661-9.